Background and Objective: Based on the effect of chronic metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus on the learning and memory, this study was designed to assess the usefulness of administration of salvialonic acid B on lessening of learning and memory deficits in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated into control, salvialonic acid B-treated control, diabetic and salvialonic acid B-treated diabetic groups. Salvialonic acid B was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Assessment of learning and memory was performed by Y maze and passive avoidance tests. Moreover, oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) was also measured. Results: The results showed that in diabetic rats, alternation score in Y maze and retention and recall in passive avoidance test decreased in comparison with control rats (pConclusion: Taken together, these results show that salvialonic acid B could improve learning and memory deficits in STZ-diabetic rats by reduction of lipid peroxidation.