An Overview of the Most Effective Tranquilizer Herbs

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Shahed University, School of Medicine, Health and Community medicine Dep.

2 Shahed University of Medical Sciences, MSc. in Health Economics, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background and Objective: The mental illnesses are one of the main problems in countries. Man has used medicinal herbs to control mental illnesses for centuries. This article reviews available effective sedative herbs that play a role in controlling mental illnesses.
Materials and Methods: At first, the authentic traditional texts and the Qur'an and the statements of the innocents were studied. Then, the keywords including mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, nerve restlessness, Parkinson’s disease, melancholia, fear, nerve calming, psychosis and convulsion and other disorders, sedative herbs, medicinal herbs, the name of herbs and sedation were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar from 2014 to 2017. The more relevant articles were selected and the most effective tranquilizer herbs were studied.
Results: Nearly 50 medicinal plants were found out to be effective in controlling mental illnesses. From the herb list, we selected the most effective ones. Including criteria for the selection of herbs was also the vast spectrum of effectiveness, harmless, and easy availability. Therefore, the 8 following plants had first priority: Borage officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Valeriana officials, Crocus sativa, Melissa Officinal, Hypericum perforatum, Passiflora incarnate, and Humulus upulus.
Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness, harmlessness, and availability, the Crocus sativa should be used in foods in usual dosage and the other plants as herbal tea separately or in combination.

Keywords


1. Holy Quran. Surah Al-Raad. Verse 28.
2. Shobbar A.Imams medicine. 6th. Ed. Ghom: Henaras. 2013.
3. Ebadi M. Basic of pharmacodynamics of medicinal plants. Qolami A, Abolhasan Zadeh Z, Mohaghegh Zadeh A. First Edition. Mohit Publication. 1393. P:60.
4. Abed AR, Saffaran Kh R, Minain M , Ghannadi R.Borage in science history transition. Journal of Islamic and Iranian Tradishional Medicine 2012;3(2): 211-216.
5. Duke A J. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. Amoozegar Z, Mohagheghzadeh A, Shams Ardakani M R. Translators. Second Edition. Rah Kamal (Chogan) Publication. 1392: 447-451.
6. Ganji M. Psychopathology based on the DMS-5, second edition, Volume 1. Savalan publication. 1392:259.
7. Khalighi Sigaroudi F, Jarvandi S, Taghizadeh M. Therapeutic application of medicinal plants. First edition. Arjmand-nasl Farda Publication. 1389: 29-49.
8. Miraj S, Kiani S. Melissa officinalis L: A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective. Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative medicine. 2016: 1-10.
9. Abargouei R. Ahl al-Bayt alphabetical encyclopedia of medicine. Third edition. Mashhoor Publication. 1393:191.
10. Cheraghali AH, Nraenjkar J, Hosseini Shirazi SF, Feizi M, et al. Irans official Pharmacooia. 1st ed Tehran Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences 2013.
11. Safai M. Comprehensive collection of books about medicinal plants and herbs of Iran. Third edition. Chahar Bagh Publication. 1393:98-99.
12. Ozarowski M, Mikolajczak PL, Piasecka A, Kachlicki P, Kujawski R, Bogacz A, et al. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016.
13. Azhdaryan N. Encyclopedia of therapeutic plants. Second edition. Ayeneh Danesh. 1392: 157-158.

14. Belkheir AK, Gaid M, Liu B, Hänsch R, Beerhues L. Benzophenone Synthase and Chalcone Synthase Accumulate in the Mesophyll of Hypericum perforatum Leaves at Different Developmental Stages. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7.
15. Oliveira AI, Pinho C, Sarmento B, Dias AC. Neuroprotective activity of Hypericum perforatum and its major components. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016; 7:1004.
16. HOU W, Shakya P, Franklin G. A perspective on hypericum perforatum genetic transformation. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016; 7:879.
17. Seifritz E, Hatzinger M, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Efficacy of Hypericum extract WS® 5570 compared with paroxetine in patients with a moderate major depressive episode–a subgroup analysis. International Jjournal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 2016:1-7.
18. Qaseem A, Barry MJ, Kansagara D. Nonpharmacologic versus pharmacologic treatment of adult patients with major depressive disorder: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2016;164(5):350-359.
19. Karppinen K, Derzsó E, Jaakola L, Hohtola A. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of hyp-1 type PR-10 family genes in Hypericum perforatum. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7.
20. Duke A J. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. Amoozegar Z, Mohaghegh Zadeh A, Shams Ardakani M R. Translators. Second Edition. Rah Kamal (Chogan) Publication. 1392: 157-159.
21. Kian Mehr H. Medicinal plants of Iran. First Edition. Ayeezh Publication. 1393: 90-91.
22. Sadati S A. Natural and therapeutic properties of fruits and vegetables, the diet in the treatment of diseases. Seventh edition. Ma va Shoma Publication. 1390: 96-97.
23. Muszyńska B, Łojewski M, Rojowski J, Opoka W, Sułkowska-Ziaja K. Natural products of relevance in the prevention and supportive treatment of depression. Psychiatria Polska. 2015;49(3):435-453.

24. Mazidi M, Shemshian M, Mousavi SH, Norouzy A, Kermani T, Moghiman T, et al. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2016;13(2):195-199.
25. Ravindran AV, McIntosh D, Morehouse RL, Ravindran L, Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 5. complementary and alternative medicine treatments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):576-587.
26. Ghajar A, Neishabouri S, Velayati N, Jahangard L, Matinnia N, Haghighi M, et al. Crocus sativus L. versus Citalopram in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder with Anxious Distress: A Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2016.
27. Douk J Green Pharmacy. 6 th ed Tehran Nei Publication. 2013.
28. Jazini M. Therapeutic properties of plants. First Edition. Kankash Publication. 1391:109.
29. Avi Sina A. Ghanoon 2nd V15 thed Tehran: Soroush. 2014.
30. . Heydariyan MH. Hakim Razi Mohd Razi and Galen's medicine. 1383 Heralds the Publication. 208.
31. Komaki A, Rasouli B, Shahidi S. Anxiolytic Effect of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae) Extract in Male Rats. Avicenna Journal of Neuropsychophysiology. 2015;2(1).
32. Gang H l, He Z Y, Liu X h, Ma Y. Effects of the ethanol extractive of Borago officinalis on neurotransmitter in the brain tissue of mouse model of chronic depression [J]. Journal of Jiangsu University (Medicine Edition). 2012; 2:004.
33. Thomas K, Canedo J, Perry PJ, Doroudgar S, Lopes I, Chuang HM, et al. Effects of valerian on subjective sedation, field sobriety testing and driving simulator performance. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2016; 92:240-24.
34. Ricigliano V, Kumar S, Kinison S, Brooks C, Nybo SE, Chappell J, et al. Regulation of sesquiterpenoid metabolism in recombinant and elicited Valeriana officinalis hairy roots. Phytochemistry. 2016; 125:43-53.
35. Gharib M, Samani LN, Panah ZE, Naseri M, Bahrani N, Kiani K. The effect of valeric on anxiety severity in women undergoing hysterosalpingography. Global Journal of Health Science. 2015;7(3):358-363.
36. Franco L, Blanck TJ, Dugan K, Kline R, Shanmugam G, Galotti A, et al. Both lavender fleur oil and unscented oil aromatherapy reduce preoperative anxiety in breast surgery patients: a randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2016; 33:243-249.
37. Hasanzadeh F, Kashouk NM, Amini S, Asili J, Emami SA, Vashani HB, et al. The effect of cold application and lavender oil inhalation in cardiac surgery patients undergoing chest tube removal. EXCLI Journal. 2016; 15:64.
38. Xu P, Wang K, Lu C, Dong L, Gao L, Yan M, et al. Protective effect of lavender oil on scopolamine induced cognitive deficits in mice and H 2 O 2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 193:408-415.
39. Nikolova G, Karamalakova Y, Kovacheva N, Stanev S, Zheleva A, Gadjeva V. Protective effect of two essential oils isolated from Rosa damascena Mill. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and two classic antioxidants against L-dopa oxidative toxicity induced in healthy mice. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2016; 81:1-7.
40. Aman U, Subhan F, Shahid M, Akbar S, Ahmad N, Ali G, et al. Passiflora incarnata attenuation of neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia apropos GABA-ergic and opioidergic antinociceptive and behavioural mechanisms. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;16(1):1.
41. Dantas L, de Oliveira-Ribeiro A, de Almeida-Souza L, Groppo F. Effects of passiflora incarnata and midazolam for control of anxiety in patients undergoing dental extraction. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 2017: e95-e101.
42. Villet S, Vacher V, Colas A, Danno K, Masson J-L, Marijnen P, et al. Open-label observational study of the homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose for anxiety and sleep disorders. Homeopathy. 2016;105(1):84-91.

43. Jawna‐Zboińska K, Blecharz‐Klin K, Joniec‐Maciejak I, Wawer A, Pyrzanowska J, Piechal A, et al. Passiflora incarnata L. Improves Spatial Memory, Reduces Stress, and Affects Neurotransmission in Rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2016.
44. Klein N, Gazola AC, Lima TCM, Schenkel E, Nieber K, Butterweck V. Assessment of sedative effects of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa and Passiflora alata extracts in mice, measured by telemetry. Phytotherapy Research. 2014;28(5):706-713.